Calming the Furious Storm?
Project Storm Fury
The next official attempt to modify hurricanes ran from 1962 – 1983 and was called Project Storm fury. Another apt name for a mitigation program…
This project was run by two of the foremost atmospheric scientists of the 20th century, Dr Robert Simpson and his wife Dr Joanne Simpson.
Dr Joanne Simpson, also the head of Project Storm fury for two years, is credited with the theory of seeding outside the eye wall to weaken the hurricane.
They were joined by Ben Livingston, veteran of Project Popeye, dubbed “the father of weaponized weather” and the first person to seed a cloud with the intention to do military damage.
“The reason the cloud doesn’t expand on its own in most cases is the fact that there is a lot of moisture but there’s no nuclei, there’s nothing for the moisture to stick to. So, when you provide the silver iodide nuclei, it causes the water to coalesce to that nuclei, and what it does, it releases heat, which means everything starts to rise. If you produce enough nuclei at the right places in a cloud, there’s essentially no limit to how fast and how far it will grow, because it just keeps releasing heat as it goes up, and of course the heat keeps trying to rise” Emphasis mine
Livingston, describes seeding and nurturing a cloud during Project Popeye until it grew past the altitude of cirrus clouds, the freezing level. It reached well over 65,000 feet in 41 minutes. As the silver iodide-enhanced cloud condensation released latent heat, the cloud developed vigorous convective activity, decreasing the pressure underneath and drawing other clouds into it. When the upper ice nuclei reached precipitation size they fell down through the lower level clouds invigorating them. Given enough water vapour and aerosols there is virtually no limit to how large a cloud can grow.
How many aircraft are required to seed a hurricane?
Surprisingly, two small aircraft would be enough and as the cloud seeding nuclei are extremely small, weight and volume are not an issue.
“You don’t measure these particulates in terms of tons, you measure them in terms of half-pounds. So a cloud seeding device with 14 grams of Silver Iodide mixture in it that produces ten to the thirteen nuclei per gram, weighs about a third of a pound. So four hundred of those things weighs a hundred and twenty pounds.” Emphasis mine
"We're carrying more cloud seeding material on one airplane now, over 800% more on each plane than we had during Project Storm Fury" Emphasis mine
How can intensifying cloud formation, the fuel for storms, possibly lead to mitigation of a hurricane?
“The hypothesis for how to do this had been designed by Dr Joanne Simpson and her husband Dr Robert Simpson was the director of Project Storm Fury for a number of years. And we followed her hypothesis which said that if you seed enough cloud in the right front quadrant of where the energy cells are, you may build a second eye or at the minimum, make the original eye much bigger, which makes you have a reduction in wind velocity”
The proposed modification technique involved artificial stimulation of convection outside the eyewall through seeding with silver iodide. This was to build a competing eye that would disrupt the organisation of the individual storm cells and so weaken the original eye and significantly reduce winds and consequent damage.
According to Livingston, the method was a resounding success:
“On August 18th 1969, Hurricane Debbie was seeded 5 times in two hour intervals and the maximum wind speeds decreased from 115 to 80 mph a pretty remarkable reduction of more than 45% in damage reduction potential. The cloud was, the storm was left alone on the 19th and on the 20th we went back and seeded that cloud the second time, it decreased the winds again to just under 100 miles per hour of about 24% more damage reduction potential.” Emphasis mine.
In 1972, Dr William Gray, one of the world`s leading experts on tropical storms and pioneer of hurricane prediction published a paper proposing the use of a new technology to supplement that of Project Storm fury.
Rather than the dispersal of aerosols into layers of clouds, this involved the laying down of black carbon (soot) particles over the surface of the land or ocean to absorb solar radiation and utilizing this effect to generate heat convection to the surrounding air and water molecules. This had numerous applications, including cumulonimbus enhancement and the melting of snow and ice which I have outlined in another article.
Also proposed was the application for mitigation of hurricanes which followed the hypothesis suggested by Joanne Simpson, the enhancement of competing convection cells to weaken the eye of the hurricane. This would require 10-20 jumbo type cargo aircraft.
Like aerosol deployment in the upper layers, black carbon laid down below, if applied too close to the eye wall, would strengthen the storm cells that formed it and intensify the hurricane winds.
A Furious Storm in a Teacup?
Despite its proclaimed success, the project had its opponents. A number of scientists demanded that a third party investigate. Stanford University was the institution chosen for the task and they confirmed the results of Storm fury. Despite this official validation, it seems the project was eventually killed from within. Researchers at NOAA came up with the requirement that for a hurricane to be seeded, it had to pass through a geographical region that had had no history of a hurricane ever reaching land from. According to Livingston, this “area of improbability” ensured that no hurricanes were experimented on for ten years and the powers that be, deciding the aerial reconnaissance to be too expensive, closed down the project.
The official explanation for this is that the promising results came into question in the mid-1980s because observations in unmodified hurricanes indicated:
That cloud seeding had little prospect of success because hurricanes contained too much natural ice and too little supercooled water.
That the positive results inferred from the seeding experiments in the 1960’s stemmed from an inability to discriminate between the expected results of human intervention and the natural behavior of hurricanes.
It was also discovered, quite curiously, that the formation of an outer eyewall that robbed the inner eye wall of moisture actually occurred naturally, rendering the need for modification obsolete.
Let us suppose, as many claim, that hurricane modification was not really shut down at any point since 1947, and that it went black. Then it follows that the observations reviewed in the mid-1980s, would not have been on unmodified hurricanes but on modified hurricanes.
This would explain why the hurricanes contained too much ice and too little super cooled water. Why should hurricanes not contain enough super cooled water? The reason could be because dry ice or in most cases, too many artificial nuclei (silver iodide) had already been seeded into them, thus reducing the amount of super cooled water and increasing the amount of artificially-induced (not natural) ice crystals.
This would also explain the all too convenient and little understood process of eyewall replacement. It was occurring because every storm reaching such intensity had been modified all along.
It would also explain the inability claimed by the review to discriminate between modified and unmodified hurricanes which would really be the fault of the 80’s review and not Project Storm Fury.
The likely reason that this project went black was due to the legal ramifications of public awareness. If the mitigation attempt failed and exacerbated the situation as in Project Cirrus, the economic and political consequences would be severe.
More insidiously, it is in the interests of the energy and construction industries for hurricanes to be left unmitigated and at full damage potential. A form of disaster capitalism. Livingston was quite frank on this issue:
“If you study the situation, you may learn and very diabolically so, that you don’t like to believe this, but there’s a possibility and the economics of it verify the fact that there is so much damage done that the construction industry in general all over the United States benefit because the cost of materials goes up. So, the Insurance companies may or may not gain from having this damage reduction take place. As far as the energy industry is concerned we all know that they get their money back almost immediately by increasing the price of their products and it’s not unheard of to believe that the actions performed by FEMA or the government is not a sure-fire way to buy votes. So, there may not be any political or economic motivation on the government or some major industries part to reduce the damage of hurricanes.” Emphasis mine
The energy and construction industries are tightly interlocked with the military/industrial complex responsible for this technology. They are all controlled by the financial syndicate that provides the funding for such activities. Complicated insurance instruments such as weather derivatives and catastrophe bonds ensure that these events are played for maximum benefit to fraudulent, insider speculation. The deep cover of such a weather modification program ensures that not only can damaging hurricanes events be allowed to happen, they can also be made to happen.
It follows that the ability to intensify and steer hurricanes into specific targets is the logical progression from this diabolical mode of thought.