16. Warping the Weather Machine

A Study in Infra-Red

Part sixteen – Warping the Weather Machine

 

“... The spring, the summer,

The childing autumn, angry winter change

Their wonted liveries, and the mazèd world,

By their increase, now knows not which is which.

And this same progeny of evils comes

From our debate, from our dissension.

We are their parents and original”

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

As outlined previously in this study, proposals in the 20th century to melt the Arctic ice were considered by the power structure of several nations. The predicted consequences are suspiciously similar to what has actually been occurring to the climate since those ideas were entertained. In short Anthropogenic Global Warming should be renamed Philanthropogenic Global Warming.

 “Lowering the albedo and raising the temperature. One school of thought hypothesizes that such a change might result in an ice free Arctic during the summer.”

If this did occur, the semi-permanent low pressure belt, the subtropical high pressure belt and the inter-tropical convergence zone would experience a northward shift. If the general circulation was changed in this manner, the following climatic changes could occur:

  • an increase of precipitation north of  70 degrees latitude;

  • shift of monsoon rains into arid areas;

  • melt of some areas of permafrost;

  • decrease of precipitation in the zone between 40 degrees and 50 degrees north, with a probable increase in evaporation;

  • some rise in sea level.

While the alterations which could result in these terminal changes could produce local benefits, they could also cause a dislocation of agriculture in the entire northern hemisphere and in three of the world’s major grain producing nations: the USA, Canada and the USSR, and a resulting possible disaster in many of the thickly populated, highly developed countries. This, in turn, would have unknown effects on mankind in general.

Weather modification the evolution of an R and D program into a military operation.

 

“If this did occur, the semi-permanent low pressure belt, the subtropical high pressure belt and the inter-tropical convergence zone would experience a northward shift.”

The technical name for these “belts”, referred to by the AMEG group as “bands”, are the “Atmospheric Convection Cells”.

“The normal pattern comprises 3 bands of weather systems around the planet for each hemisphere, with each band having 'cells' of circulating air.  The air rises at the tropics, falls at the next boundary, rises at the next, and falls at the pole.  There has to be an odd number of bands, so that there is air rising at the equator and falling at the poles.  The jet streams are at the boundary between the bands.”
AMEG Strategic Plan

Wind Directions

General Wind Directions

Image from NASA

 

Atmospheric Convection Cells

The Hadley cell is a pattern of atmospheric circulation in which warm air rises near the equator, cools as it travels poleward at high altitude, sinks as cooling, dry air (at around 30 latitude where the world’s deserts are located), and warms  from contact with the earth as it travels equatorward at low altitude. This cell is driven by differences in heat energy between the equator and the pole.

The Polar cell is a pattern of atmospheric circulation in which intensely cold air sinks at the poles, warms from contact with the earth as it travels equatorward at low altitude, rises as warming air (at around 60 latitude) and cools as it travels poleward at high altitude. This cell is driven by differences in heat energy between the pole and the equator.

The Ferrel cell is a pattern of atmospheric circulation in between the Hadley and Polar cells that acts in a similar fashion to a gear. It is important to note that unlike the other cells, it is not driven by differences in heat energy but by friction where the air is in contact with the other two cells. At around 30 latitude, cooling dry air from the Hadley cell moving equatorward drags the air from the Ferrel cell downwards with it, intensifying the pressure. As the high pressure air moves poleward it cools from contact with the earth but the sinking is counteracted by the friction from the rising air at 60 latitude from the Polar cell which drags the air from the Ferrel cell up with it, and reduces the pressure. The friction from the two cells overrides the influence of the heat energy differences between the pole and the equator on this cell.

The reason that 3 cells exist instead of 1, consisting of air rising at the tropics and sinking at the poles, is because of the Coriolis force resulting from the earth’s rotation.

 

http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/global/images/jetstream3.jpg

The northern hemisphere’s large-scale atmospheric circulation systems.

 

The effect of Global Warming on the Atmospheric Convection Cells

Under a warming world, the Hadley cell expands and the subtropical high pressure region shifts further along the northern latitudes. Applying the same logic, the low altitude winds from the Pole should warm and rise at a greater rate, leading to a corresponding contraction in the Polar cell. The Hadley cell expands, the Polar cell contracts. This results in all the cells being shunted north along with their associated subtropical and polar jet streams. As the northern hemisphere and the Arctic, in particular, are warming at a faster rate than the equator and the southern hemisphere, this effect is more pronounced the further one travels northward. The Polar cell contracts more than the Hadley cell expands.

Several studies have linked a poleward expansion of the convection cells to global warming. Here is one:

“Widening of the tropical belt since 1979”

“Remarkably, the tropics appear to have already expanded — during only the last few decades of the twentieth century — by at least the same margin as models predict for this century. Several recent studies, using independent datasets, show robust trends in different measures of the width of the tropical belt. Based on five different types of measurement, they find a widening of several degrees latitude since 1979.”

“Seidel and Randel report an expansion of 5 to 8 degrees latitude during 1979–2005 in the northern hemisphere.”

Widening of the tropical belt in a changing climate

 

 

 

Global warming, atmospheric circulation and drought

Atmospheric scientists have attempted to address the question as to why the multi-year drought that California has been experiencing is so unusual. They linked the drought in western and southwestern US to other areas of the world experiencing similar conditions such as Mexico, Brazil, southwestern Australia, southern Africa, northern Africa, the mid-Mediterranean and southern Europe. All these regions lie on the edge of the planet’s mid-latitudes. They found that an expansion due to global warming in the Hadley cell resulted in the centre of the dry, sinking, high pressure air being shifted further north over a broader range to include those heavily-populated regions experiencing drought today. The tropics over the equator have become more humid, whilst the subtropics have become drier. The rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer as one scientist put it.

Is drought the new normal for Southern California?

 “Many regions of the subtropical and tropical continents such as southern Amazonia, Australia, and the southwestern and central United States, have repeatedly experienced extreme droughts over the past few decades, and accompanied by an increasing wetness over the equatorial regions. These phenomena seems to be consistent with an apparent intensified and poleward expansion of the tropical meridional circulation (1, 2), i.e., the Hadley Circulation (HC) observed in recent decades.”

“The HC influences the latitudinal distributions of rainfall, clouds, and relative humidity over half of the earth’s surface, and consequently, it controls the geographic distribution of the world’s dry and wet regions. It can expand or contract in a warmer or colder global climate, leading to major floods and droughts that might have triggered the collapse of ancient civilizations in the past (5). Over the last decade or two, the HC has been expanding poleward at a rate faster than that predicted by the global climate models, contributing to increased droughts over many subtropical regions.”

Fig. 1.

Illustration of the HC and its relationship to the midlatitude baroclinic eddies: (A) climatology in current climate; (B) the weaker and broader HC projected by many CMIP3 and CMIP5 models; and (C) the stronger and broader HC due to DTS in Lau and Kim. The light orange color illustrates the warming due to greenhouse effect that increases the static stability of the atmosphere and weakens the equator-to-pole surface temperature gradient.

Global warming-accelerated drying in the tropics

 

The Horse Latitudes

The dry, sinking, high pressure region normally around 30 degrees North, associated with the world’s deserts, is known at sea as the horse latitudes. This strange name originates from the often stagnant conditions of the ocean experienced here where early explorers were frequently forced to dump their cargos of dead and dying livestock.

 

horse latitudes

What are the horse latitudes?

 

An expansion of the horse latitudes poleward of several degrees due to global warming (summer also shifts them poleward) would centre them over the region of the San Joaquin valley (36.6 degrees in latitude).

Also affected by a warming world is the favourite of the Mediarologists, the jet stream.

 

What is the Jet Stream?

 

Jet Stream - Public doman, National Weather Service

The area where high and low pressure systems meet on average at around 60 degrees latitude, gives rise to the polar jet stream. There are in fact four jet streams, two in each hemisphere. They occur along the boundaries of the Atmospheric Convection Cells.

Specifically, the jet stream is caused by the meeting of air masses just under the tropopause where winds are the strongest. When two air masses of different densities meet here, the pressure created by the different densities causes winds to increase. As these winds attempt to flow from the warm area in the nearby stratosphere down into the cooler troposphere they are deflected by the Coriolis Effect and flow along the boundaries of the original two air masses. The results are the polar and subtropical jet streams that form around the world.

The Jet Stream

As the jet streams are the result of the temperature differences between air masses, any form of jet stream manipulation, must be the result of a prior manipulation of the temperatures of the giant air masses that underlie them. Thus, the jet streams move along with the shifts in the atmospheric convection cells. In a warming world, we should expect them to be shifted poleward, the shift in the polar jet being more pronounced.

Image result for images of The Ridiculously Resilient Ridge

 

The Ridiculously Resilient Ridge

In 2013 PhD student, Daniel Swain coined the term “Ridiculously Resilient Ridge”.

“The Ridiculously Resilient Ridge is this region of highly persistent high pressure over the north eastern Pacific ocean that has been there more often than not.”

He was referring to the main cause of the 2012-2015 drought which was alleviated somewhat in 2016, at least in Northern California, but now seems to be returning.

Due to this persistence, low pressure systems that would bring in much needed moisture are prevented from moving into California. The blocking ridge is exceptional for both its size and longevity. It dissipates during the summer but returns in greater strength during the autumn and winter months. Winter is normally California’s wet season but due to the RRR, rain and snow are diverted to Alaska and the Arctic.

 

 

 

 

 

The California Weather Blog

 

 

File:The Ridiculously Resilient Ridge.pdf

“The Ridiculously Resilient Ridge as it appeared in January 2014. Plotted quantity is 90-day running mean 500mb geopotential height anomaly.”

This also accounted for the large geopotential height anomalies observed in the same region. The height is an indication of how much the atmosphere is rising. The increase of surface pressure due to the shift of the high pressure zone further north and the increasingly cool land temperatures as it moves poleward, is counteracted by the effect of global warming both on the Ferell cell and the increased “pull” of the upward rising region of the Polar cell.

“The atmospheric height essentially tells you how much the atmosphere is bubbling up (hot air, which is less dense, occupies more space or volume than cold air): a large height measurement indicates a big heat bubble.”

Pressure cooker! Washington, D.C. matches record high pressure reading in heat wave

Invasion of the “blobs”

Correlated with the high pressure ridge are “warm blobs” of water off the US west coast. They are usually about 1600km (1000miles) wide and 1-4 degrees Celsius (2-7) degrees Fahrenheit above normal.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/26/The_Blob_NOAA_April_2014.jpg

 

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/276D5E8400000578-3033598-A_blob_of_warm_water_2_000_miles_across_is_sitting_in_the_Pacifi-a-96_1428666569391.jpg

“The three "blobs" of warm water can be seen off the North American coast, ranging from Alaska to Mexico, seen in this graphic dated 1 September 2014”

What's Causing Weird Weather? Blame a 'Warm Blob' of Water

 

Cirrus Cloud Over-seeding for Weather and Climate Control

As previously outlined in this study, the intentional laying down of artificially-induced cirrus cloud cover by means of aircraft, is one of the primary means of achieving elevated temperatures across the globe in general. This activity can be intensified in strategically important zones such as the Bering Sea, the Gulf of Alaska and the West Coast of the US.

In the image and article linked below, Harold Saive demonstrates how this technology was applied to raise the surface temperature of northern Florida.

 

aerosol-climate-engineering-surface-temps

PROOF: Chemtrails, Chemical Clouds Create Synthetic Global Warming (Video)

The particulates laid down by the aircraft act as ice nuclei which out-compete the natural variety and generate vast artificial clouds that persist for long periods, significantly reducing rainfall as the available water vapour is spread out. However eventually the individual ice particles do reach the size required for precipitation to occur and the vast amount of locked up water is released in huge deluges.  

In the US this is observed as trails are laid down with great quantities of aerosols over the Eastern Pacific and Western USA which trap the moisture and form vast artificial clouds. The more intense the cloud over, the greater quantity of heat trapped underneath and the greater the amount of evaporation. This water is further locked up by the aerosols, blocking precipitation and amplifying the positive feedback. Overland, this enhanced evaporation denudes the environment of much needed water.

The artificial cirrus clouds laid down over the west, migrate towards the eastern US where they gradually build up enough water for the ice crystals to grow large enough to precipitate and fall as rain (or snow if the temperatures are low enough). The vast amount of water frequently falls as a deluge leading to flooding in many areas. The actual amount of moisture in the atmosphere in the east is artificially augmented along with cumulus (lower) cloud formation as we shall see later. Water has been taken from the west and dumped in the east.

 

West coast contrails

 

Summary and Conclusions

  • Global warming has the effect of shifting the 3 atmospheric convection cells poleward.

  • The Hadley cell in the tropics expands and the Polar cell contracts.

  • The Ferrell cell in between these two cells, is moved poleward along with them.

  • This shift results in the dry, sinking, high pressure region around 30 ° N, associated with the world’s deserts, being moved further north over the western and southwestern US and other areas of the world such as Mexico, Brazil, southwestern Australia, southern Africa, northern Africa, the mid-Mediterranean and southern Europe.

  • All these areas have been experiencing drought.

  • The shift is also responsible for the northward movement of the subtropical and polar jet streams, which occur at the boundaries of the cells.

  • Associated with this shift is the region of highly persistent high pressure over the north eastern Pacific ocean dubbed “The Ridiculously Resilient Ridge”.

  • Dissipating somewhat in the summer, it returns in greater strength during the autumn and winter, the period when global warming is more pronounced.

  • Winter is normally California’s wet season, during the reign of the RRR, sufficient rain and snow cannot get through. This blocking ridge diverts it northwards to Alaska and the Arctic.

  • The position of this high pressure region is as much due to the “dragging” effect on the Ferrel cell and associated Polar jet resulting from the contraction of the Polar cell as to the “pushing” effect from the Hadley cell.

  • As the Arctic region is warming 3 times faster than the tropics, the “pull” is likely more pronounced than the “push”.

  • The intentional laying down of artificially-induced cirrus cloud cover by means of aircraft, is one of the primary means of achieving elevated temperatures across the globe in general. This activity can be intensified in strategically important zones such as the Bering Sea, the Gulf of Alaska and the West Coast of the US.

In part 17 we shall look at the real driving force behind the weirding of the weather across the globe and the role that climate modification plays in it.