A Study in
Part ten – The Spectral Hound
1877 - 1962
"Mr. Holmes, they were the footprints of a gigantic hound!"
We have looked at two major forms of climate modification,
1877 - 1953
Harold Saive’s fascinating article
Channelling more of the warm Kuroshio Current through the Bering Strait to raise temperatures in the Polar region.
Exploding atomic bombs
at an appropriate height above the polar regions to raise the temperature of the Arctic Ocean and warm the entire climate of the northern temperate zone.
Placing a ring of metallic potassium particles into Earth’s polar orbit
to diffuse light reaching Earth and increase solar radiation to thaw the permanently frozen soil of Russia, Canada, and Alaska and melt polar ice.
Building a gigantic dam across the Bering Strait and using nuclear power–driven propeller pumps to push the warm Pacific current into the Atlantic by way of the Arctic Sea.
Arctic ice would melt, and the Siberian and North American frozen areas would become temperate and productive.
1953 - 1962
A US Navy officer,
He reported that the
Here are some relevant excerpts from the paper that covered the history of these projects:
This project may have included the
“Such a scheme, which would have
“As we will see, it was instrumental in prompting the
“Dr Edward Teller - a frequent participant of many of these campaigns
“Dr Henry G. Houghton
“An infinitely more balanced assessment in a military periodical in 1975 still put a heavy emphasis on Soviet efforts:
“This branch of science has a vast potential for good -- as for
“The Director of the Soviet Hydrometeorological Service has declared that
“These programs clearly might
“The USSR has reported plans to
“These changes are large enough to raise possible implications in the area of climatic change and some initial calculations have suggested that
Other methods included:
“Lowering the albedo and raising the temperature.
“If this did occur,
an increase of precipitation north of 70 degrees
shift of monsoon rains into arid areas;
melt of some areas of permafrost;
decrease of precipitation in
the zone between 40 degrees and 50 degrees north, with a probable increase in evaporation;
some rise in sea level.
While the alterations which could result in these terminal changes
Today, we are already receiving
warnings of an imminent ice free Arctic during summer.
The technical terms for the “belts” referred to above, are the
Hadley cell, the Ferrel cell and the Polar cell. Together they constitute the Atmospheric Convection Cells. Several studies have linked a poleward expansion of the convection cells to global warming. Here is one and here is another, more recent, that links the expansion in the tropics to the shifting of high altitude (net-warming) clouds in the mid-latitudes towards the poles. A chicken and egg conundrum if ever there was one.
Northern regions such as
Alaska are experiencing record warmth and precipitation.
The warming has caused
soil temperatures in the permafrost regions to increase about 1 to 3°C higher than long-term averages and in some areas, as predicted by the Russians above, close to 0°C. Areas of boreal forests are now referred to as ‘drunken forests’, and as it melts the trees fall over.
drought experienced in the western and southwestern US, Mexico, Brazil, southwestern Australia, southern Africa, northern Africa, the mid-Mediterranean and southern Europe is believed by atmospheric scientists to be due to these regions lying on the edge of the planet’s mid-latitudes, again as predicted by the Russians. The scientists found that an expansion due to global warming in the Hadley cell resulted in the centre of the dry, sinking, high pressure air being shifted further polewards over a broader range to include those heavily-populated regions experiencing drought today. The tropics over the equator have become more humid, whilst the subtropics have become drier. The rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer as one scientist put it.
Melting land ice releasing water into the oceans,
already expanding due to warmer temperatures, has led to sea level rises threatening 40% of the world’s population who live within 62 miles of the ocean.
One of the most prolific researchers,
increase the global temperature of the Earth by 1.7°C, “by injecting a cloud of ice crystals into the polar atmosphere by detonating 10 H-bombs in the Arctic Ocean – the subject of his 1958 article in Science magazine” (Wexler H., 1958, “Modifying Weather on a Large Scale,” Science, n.s. 128 (Oct. 31, 1958): 1059-1063).
To diminish the global temperature by 1.2°C could be doable, “by launching a ring of dust particles into
equatorial orbit, a modification of an earlier Russian proposal to warm the Arctic”.
To destroy the ozone layer and hence increase abruptly the surface temperature of the Earth,
by spraying “several hundred thousand tons of chlorine or bromine” with a stratospheric airplane. Fleming, 2007(a), pp. 56-57; Fleming, 2007(b), “note n° viii” p. 9 & p. 5 (source)
The target global temperature increase of
Scientists’ actual attempts at using nuclear devices to test proposals to
Projects Argus in 1958
Officially, these experiments were to test the ionosphere, but how many bombs do you have to detonate before you gain an idea of how this layer of the atmosphere works?
It is more likely that these were actual operations carried out in alignment with proposals to alter the upper atmosphere. The methodology could have been
Wexler suggested that
It is assumed today that removal of ozone would result in a surface cooling. This is because the effect of the loss of ozone’s ability to trap outgoing IR energy would be greater than the temperature increase resulting from the additional UV radiation allowed through in its absence.
However, this does not take into account the effect that a cooling of the stratosphere would have on the increase in Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) formation, amplified by aircraft emplacing great quantities of ice nuclei at that level.
PSCs would more than plug the hole as
The underwater explosions may have had the intent of testing Wexler’s idea of “injecting a cloud of ice crystals into the polar atmosphere by detonating 10 H-bombs in the Arctic Ocean.”
Footprints of Dust and Mist
In addition to channels, pumps, atomic bombs, rockets and particles, we have three methods proposed during this period of particular relevance to our study. These are altering albedo and cloud cover, and diverting warm waters further north.
Melting the Arctic and
Greenland icecaps by spreading black coal dust on the ice.
Creating cloud-cover across the poles to trap heat.
warm Atlantic waters into the polar regions.
To be continued in part 11.
- 00. Introduction: Phil-anthropogenic Global Warming
- 01. The Gorilla in the Greenhouse
- 02. Carbon Footprints
- 03. Overclouding
- 04. Vicious Cycles
- 05. The Dog in the Night-time
- 06. Counterfeiting Clouds
- 07. Solar Radiation MISmanagement
- 08. The Riddle at the Heart of Ice
- 09. Fingerprints of the Would Be Gods
- 10. The Spectral Hound 1877 – 1962
- 11. The Spectral Hound 1961 – 1978
- 12. The Spectral Hound 1978 – Present
- 13. Footprints of the Fallen Angels
- 14. The Secret Chord
- 15. Receive and Transmit
- 16. Warping the Weather Machine
- 17. Hyperborea: Behind the North Wind
- 18. Jacked Frost
- 19. Herding Hurricanes
- 20. The Ring of Fire
- 21. The World’s Stage
- 22. Murder on the Polar Express
- 23. Saviours and Psychopaths